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Davidic Covenant

Davidic Covenant – Unconditional
The Davidic Covenant (2 Samuel 7) is an unconditional covenant. God established certain unconditional covenants with Israel, such as the Noahic and Abrahamic covenants. God, alone, is the only One who is able to fulfill such promises. Unlike the Mosiac Covenant, they are not contingent upon man and thus cannot be broken (Jeremiah 31:31-33).

In Genesis 9:8-17, the first unconditional covenant—never to destroy all earthly life with some natural catastrophe—was made with Noah. A divine promise/agreement was made with Abraham, the father of the Jews. God promised Abraham and his descendants: the land of Canaan, the nation of Israel, and Jesus Christ as the blessing to the world (Genesis 12:1-3, Galatians 3:14-16).

Second Samuel 7 records the unconditional covenant which promises David an eternal seed and eternal throne. Similarly, the Abrahamic Covenant promised an eternal seed and land. These promises could not be earned through the works of man. As with all covenants, however, God expects faithful obedience. Deuteronomy 28 speaks of the blessings of obedience as well as the curses of disobedience. Knowing the stubbornness of His people, God reminds them. “I will be his father, and he will be my son. When he does wrong, I will punish him with the rod of men, with floggings inflicted by men” (2 Samuel 7:14). This verse pertains to the fulfillment of the immediate future (Solomon and other human descendants of David). Other elements of David’s Covenant pertaining to Jesus Christ would be realized only in the more distant future (Luke 1:31-33).

Davidic Covenant – The Seven Blessings
The Davidic Covenant represented God’s promises to David, ensuring an everlasting pledge that contained seven blessings:

  • A sure land for Israel forever
  • No more affliction from nations forever
  • A Davidic kingdom forever
  • The fatherly care of God forever
  • A Davidic house forever
  • A Davidic throne forever
  • An eternal covenant
On behalf of Israel, God assured David that the people would be happy under his leadership as they experienced a quiet place in Canaan (2 Samuel 7:10). This is at the heart of God’s promises, repeated over and over again—God would be the Protector and Provider of His people, guaranteeing their future blessing (Genesis 17:6, Ezekiel 34:30-31). God’s covenant with David is a guarantee that His purpose to bring to mankind a righteous king would surely be fulfilled (2 Samuel 7:12) God promises to maintain a special relationship with David’s descendants (2 Samuel 7:14). God assures David that He will establish an eternal royal dynasty that will outlast any earthly temple or house (2 Samuel 7:16).

The foundation for the Davidic Covenant rests upon both physical and spiritual events. In 2 Samuel 7, David consults with the prophet, Nathan, about building a permanent resting place (temple) for the ark. David’s intention to construct such a structure is over-ruled. God, however, extends His gracious encouragement to David, providing him with remarkable revelations that represented greater rewards. These earthly promises were foundational, thus providing the essentials for the richer spiritual blessings in the distant future.
  • David’s immediate successor would build the temple.
  • David’s family would occupy a prominent place in the future history of Israel.
  • David’s regal status would remain upon his descendants as long as they remained faithful.
In Psalm 132, David recalls the many blessings of the Davidic Covenant. This psalm is a prayer that God would remember David’s vow concerning a permanent place for the ark. Verses 11-18 record a revelation of the Lord, confirming His earlier covenant to David.
  • The Messiah (Christ) is to be of David’s flesh and blood (Psalm 132:11).
  • The Messiah is to sit on David’s throne (Psalm 132:11).
  • God has chosen Zion1 as His eternal capital (Psalm 132:13-14).
  • The Messiah shall be a light to the house of David forever (Psalm 132:17).
  • The “horn” or “Branch” is the Coming One, who will unite the offices of priest and king (Psalm 132:17; Jeremiah 23:5).
  • David will reign as king eternally under the Messiah (Psalm 132:17).
  • The “Anointed One,” first David, then his descendants, and eventually the Messiah will be triumphant over His enemies (Psalm 132:17-18).

Davidic Covenant – God’s Promises
The message of the Davidic Covenant extends beyond the implications of the Old Testament. God promises a glorified Christ and His Millennial Kingdom to all who will come into a covenant relationship with Him. “Give ear and come to me...I [God] will make an everlasting covenant with you, my faithful love promised to David” (Isaiah 55:3). Not even a rebellious people would negate God’s covenant to David. Covenant blessings always exemplify God’s abundant mercies. These promises flow to us through Christ’s death and resurrection. Just as David was guaranteed the blessings and benefits of the initial covenant, we experience a covenant of grace that is made with us through the promised Messiah, “Christ...the mediator of a new covenant, that those who are called may receive the promised eternal inheritance...” (Hebrews 9:15).

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1 The name “Zion” was originally applied to the fortified hill of Jerusalem. After the conquest of Jerusalem by David, this fortified area was called the “City of David.” When the ark of the covenant was placed in Solomon’s temple, the temple area became known as Zion. In the New Testament, it has become the traditional site of the house in which the disciples gathered on the day of Pentecost.

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